Chemical Applications

Steam Drums



Application


Chemical manufacturers are major users of steam for cleaning, drying, fermentation, steam stripping, and chemical recovery. Steaming-in-place (SIP) is a widely used method for in-line sterilization of vessels, valves, process lines, and filter assemblies. Steam is created in a boiler where heat transforms water under pressure into steam.

Challenges

Boiler drum level control is critical for safe and efficient steam generation. Drum level control maintains level at constant steam load. Too low a level may expose boiler tubes, which will overheat and sustain damage. Too high a level may interfere with separating moisture from steam, which reduces boiler efficiency and carries moisture into the process.

Suitable Products

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Surge Drum


Application

Surge drums are frequently located between process units to help reduce the effect of flow rate variations between interconnected process units. A low surge drum level can result in reduced capacity while a high level can cause liquid carryover. In an application characterized by alternating inertia and turbulence, stable level output is highly desirable.
 
Challenges

Contrary to the normal control objective of keeping a measurement at set point, the purpose of a surge drum level control is to dampen the changes in controlled flow while keeping the liquid level in the vessel between limits. For surge drums it is generally more important to allow levels to "float" in order to minimize flow rate variations.

Suitable Products

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Chemical Injection


Application

From Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) to Vapor Phase Corrosion Inhibitors (VCIs), any one of a thousand additives and agents can be injected into the process stream of a given industry to alter or impart new product properties or enhance processing dynamics. Injection systems and chemical skid systems offer a wide range of dosing control options.

Challenges

A chemical injection system typically consists of one or more chemical supply tanks or drums, a metering tank, a vessel with a mixer (if required), a variable pump, and process controls. Chemical tanks and chemical skid packages require level monitoring to ensure that the tanks do not overfill or run out of feed chemicals.
 
Suitable Products

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Jupiter® Magnetostrictive Level Transmitter

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Liquid Extraction


Application

Liquid-liquid extraction (LLX), or solvent extraction or partitioning, is a selective separation procedure for isolating and concentrating a valuable substance from an aqueous solution by using an organic solvent. LLX can serve as an alternative when distillation is ineffective. LLX is used in pharmaceutical, food and agricultural processing, organic and inorganic chemistry, hydrometallurgy and fragrances.

Challenges

In mixer-settler type extraction, feed and solvent tanks are monitored for level. The feed and solvent are thoroughly blended in a mixer-settler chamber and the mixture overflows into a separation chamber where it settles into light and heavy phases. The separate phases are monitored and removed on interfacial level control.
 
Suitable Products

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Liquids Storage


Application

Liquids stored at chemical plants include water (potable, demineralized, fire, cooling), ingredients and finished product storage. Hazardous chemicals include inorganic acids, buffers, ammonia, chlorine, and solvents. Tanks range in size from small plastic totes to large steel tanks. The chemical stored and the tank type largely determine the level control used.
 
Challenges

Level instruments indicate inventory levels and protect against tank overfills and underfills that cavitate pumps. As some chemicals are corrosive enough to destroy contact sensors, or can crystallize and coat sensors to render them ineffective, non-contact level monitoring, resistant materials, by-pass chambers and redundant controls are sometimes used.

Suitable Products

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

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Neutralization


Application

To protect neighboring water systems, industrial wastewater must be neutralized so that it is neither acidic nor alkaline prior to its discharge. The neutralization process takes place in a tank where aqueous solutions of an acid and a base are added to wastewater. Sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide and calcium carbonate are most commonly used.
 
Challenges

Level is measured in the neutralization and chemical regeneration tanks which typically involve agitation and aggressive chemicals. Ideally, the tank level monitoring system should be easily removable for frequent cleaning. Contact level sensors should be single rod types to avoid media buildup.
 
Suitable Products

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Deionization Tanks


Application

Highly purified water is essential in processing premium grade and highly purified products in the chemical, pharmaceutical, beverage, cosmetics and electronics industries. Deionization (DI) is frequently used to remove minerals from water by passing water through two separate ion beds- cation and anion - followed by mixed bed saturation.
 
Challenges

Multiple bed DI units have pairs of tanks where an optional CO2 degasser may be placed in between. Single bed DI units incorporate both the cation and anion exchangers mixed in a single tank. In addition to monitoring feed water, a level control in the mixing tank will operate the transfer pump to route the purified water to storage.
 
Suitable Products

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Chemical Reactors


Application

Chemical, polymerization and pharmaceutical processes utilize reactor vessels to contain chemical reactions. Chemical reaction speed and product quality are frequently controlled by an external heat exchanger for elevating temperature and a cryogenic system for lowering temperature. Reactors typically contain impellers for product mixing.
 
Challenges

Level instrumentation in a tank-type reactor vessel must contend with diverse and often aggressive product chemistries, agitation, mixing, surface foam and temperature and pressure variations. Low level monitoring in the discharge line, high level monitoring in the vessel, and interfacial measurement of the foam/emulsion interface is recommended.
 
Suitable Products

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

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Mixing and Blending Systems


Application

Mixing and blending of liquid ingredients is essential throughout the broader chemical industry. In-line and skid mounted systems include batch and continuous mixing for liquid/liquid formulation and blending.An impeller in the process vessel accomplishes the mixing of miscible liquids.
 
Challenges

A mixing and blending system can be as simple as a vessel with an agitator and graduate in complexity to a fully skid-mounted PLC controlled system with heating, cooling, homogenization and steam injection capabilities. Level controls monitor tank and vessel levels and trigger alarms in underfill and overfill incidents.
 
Suitable Products

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Distillation Towers


Application

Selecting a separation technology from among 20 leading varieties depends upon a chemical's nature, the number of phases, and the capacity, speed and efficiency required. Distillation - separating substances based on differences in volatilities - is the most widely used separation and purification method. Today, approximately 40,000 distillation towers are operating in U.S. chemical plants.
 
Challenges

Level measurement at the bottom of a distillation tower controls the "bottoms" product rate. Poor level control could allow liquid to back up over the stripping trays causing damage and reduced yields. Too low level may cause pump cavitation. In related extraction towers, interface level control provides optimal separation from associated substances.
 
Suitable Products

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Chlor-Alkali Process


Application

Chlor-alkali (CA) refers to chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH) manufacturing. These are among the top ten chemicals produced worldwide and are main ingredients in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, detergents, disinfectants, herbicides, pesticides and PVC. Chlorine and caustic soda are made by the electrolysis of brine (NaCl).
 
Challenges

In the preferred membrane process of CA, level instruments control saturated brine and demineralized water feed, and caustic liquid level. Level control maintains a high enough level in the anode and cathode compartments to ensure membrane saturation, thus preventing any exchange of gases via the membrane in the upper part of the electrolysis cell.

Suitable Products

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Fermentation Vessels


Application

Industrial fermentation is the process of breaking down organic substances and re-assembling them in order to produce other chemical compounds. Alternative fuels like ethanol and chemicals such as methanol and a wide range of acids can be developed using this process. Chemical fermentation takes place in large tanks called fermenters in a process that can either be aerobic or anaerobic.

Challenges

Depending upon the type of fermentation vessel and the media being processed, the level control often must contend with agitation and aeration. Froth or foam is typically generated because fermentation agents have surfactant properties. When processing acids, contact level controls must tolerate the very aggressive media.
 
Suitable Products

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar Transmitter

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Vapor and Liquid Separation


Application

Where the separation of vapors and liquids is required, a separator drum, or knockout pot, flash drum, or compressor suction drum, is integrated into the process unit. The separation vessel receives the flashing liquid mixture where the liquid is subsequently gravity separated and falls to the bottom as the vapor exits at the top.

Challenges

Typically, a collection tank located beneath the separation chamber collects the liquid by gravity flow and utilizes a liquid level control for liquid withdrawal. The control also maintains a vapor barrier while discharging the collected liquid at the same rate of accumulation. In some separators, such as flash drums, liquid level must be kept within an extremely narrow span for very tight control.
 
Suitable Products

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Jupiter® Magnetostrictive Level Transmitter

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

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Scrubber Vessels


Application

Scrubbers remove odors, pollutants, acid gases and chemical wastes from air and liquid streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted stream flows counter currently past water or a liquid chemical which removes the undesirable component of the gas or liquid. Chemical scrubbing typically requires large amounts of caustic chemicals.
 
Challenges

Accurate level monitoring of the scrubbing water necessitates a control to automatically feed the correct amount of make-up water to the recycle reservoir either continuously or on a periodic basis. Located in the wet scrubber shell, the level monitoring device for water-out control should be equipped with a level alarm.
 
Suitable Products

Aurora® Magnetic Level Indicator

Atlas™ Magnetic Level Indicator

Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar

Jupiter® Magnetostrictive Level Transmitter

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